"Chief" Illiniwek Regalia Returned to Ogalala Lakota

Only one day after the anti-"Chief" rally at Assembly Hall protesting the Students for Chief Illiniwek's "Next Dance," the News Gazette had a major story buried on A8 of the Sunday newspaper.

In the middle of the page is a headline "Regalia returned."  There is a picture of former "Chief" portrayers and representatives of the Ogalala Lakota College.  The caption reads: "Former Chief Illiniwek portrayers and representatives of the Ogalala Lakota College gather outside the Varsity Room at Memorial Stadium on Saturday before the Illinois-Penn State football game in preparation for a transfer of the University of Illinois' chief regalia to Ogalala Lakota College.  A News-Gazette photographer was refused admittance to the ceremony by UI Associate Director of Athletics Dana Brenner, who told the photographer it was a 'private function.'"

This return comes after past statements from Frank Fools Crow disapproving of how the University used the regalia it purchased from him, the Executive Committee of the Ogalala Tribal Council passing a resolution asking the regalia be returned and the subsequent retirement of the "Chief" by the University in 2007.

disapproving of how the University used the regalia

Wow. Very cool. If the regalia was returned to the Lakota, this is indeed a very huge thing: an embarrassment to the University, a humbling experience especially to the past portrayers of the Chief.

-karen medina

Returned is the wrong word

I think "returned" is the wrong word here, as that implies it was the University that was simply "done with" the regalia, when in fact, it was the Ogalala Lakota demanding a recall of their regalia due to improper use.

Perhaps "Lakota Tribe Revokes University's Use Of Chief Regalia" would be more accurate.

??

Independent papers are questionsed by those in the public when they put items of contention in quotations...

To first commentor, after speaking to many of those who portrayed the symbol, the humbling experience always has been those four minutes, and fifty seconds of something truly unique.. 

**

I appologize for the editing error, questioned is the correct spelling

 

Consider the Point of View of Others

If you have a concern about putting contentious terms of discourse in quotes, I think you're barking up the wrong tree. Doing so is an indication that something IS contentious and has an unsettled meaning. You have your point of view, but others have their own view.

You're right about one thing. Dressing a white kid up in redface to pretend to be a Native American, then having him dance an invented dance to some white guy's tune is certainly unique. No one except the mascot ever did that in real life. As others have mentioned before, it would be inappropriate to dress up like a rabbi, priest, or minister, twirling a Torah or Bible, dancing to non-sacred music in a way that would be offensive to most people.

What's also unique is that no one would argue it's permissible to do any of that -- unless you're an Illini fan stealing and degrading the image of an oppressed people who had been subjected to a Holocaust-like Trail of Tears.

I guess the fact that the KKK had a chapter on campus when the "chief" was invented explains a lot about white culture, though. The UI was not unqiue in that at the time, but it's remarkable that so many can't let go of something so offensive that it is now tolerated in very few places, putting into question the academic integrity of our faculty, staff, and students in a way that has only been equaled by the I-list/clout scandal.

This is why I'm against the Anti-Chief arguements

I'll give you that Chief Illiniweck has almost always been a white college student. But it's an auditioned role, and anyone could potentially recieve it, regardless of race.

The "invented dance" was a researched adaption of the less-religious dances that are deemed appropriate for visitors to oberserve, the "white guy's tune"s are songs very closely associated with the school.

You mention that the dance is performed in such "a way that would be offensive to most people." Not only the dance done in a very respectful fasion, but most people DON'T FIND IT OFFENSIVE. Of the student body, only around 30% of students find the Chief offensive. The closest tribal desendents of the Illiniwek are proud to be represented by the University in this way, and a number of individuals have stated that protestors do not speak for all native americans, and certainly not themselves.

Yes, the tribes of the Illinois Confederation were relocated with the Indian removal act; but they weren't specifically on the Trail of Tears, which is associated with the tribes of the south east rather than the midwest; the various tribes are largely autonomous, to group all Native American cultures and events together is just as oppressive and demeaning as you claim the Chief is

And really? A KKK reference? Apples and Oranges. Yes, the Klan discriminated against many, if not all non-white races. What does that have to do with the Chief? Admittedly, the early 1920's were far less racially tolerant than the present day. But Chief Illiniwek was concieved as, and remains, a symbol of respect for the natives of Illinois. The criticism brought against him is largely mis-founded, and often pressured from an increasingly over politically-correct nation. He is neither the super-offensive symbol you claim, nor is he the result of several individual's poor descisions for personal game, like the clout scandal.

Thanks for playing, though

The Inoca Nation (called Iliini by Whites!) is an honor? READ!

PEORIA TRIBE OF INDIANS OF OKLAHOMA
118 S. Eight Tribes Trail  (918) 540-2535  Fax (918) 540-2538
P.O. Box 1527
Miami, Oklahoma  74355

 

RESOLUTION R-04-04-00-C

"Request to University of Illinois to Cease Use of
Chief llliniwek as Mascot "


WHEREAS,
the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is a federally recognized Indian Tribe organized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of June 26, 1936, and is governed by its Constitution approved by the Acting Deputy Commissioner of Indians Affairs on August 3, 1997, and

WHEREAS, the Business Committee of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is authorized to enact resolutions and act on behalf of the Peoria Tribe under Article VIII, Section 2, of the Constitution; and

WHEREAS, the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma are descendants of the Kaskaskia, Peoria, Piankeshuw, and Wea tribes, a group of tribes known as Illiniwek, or Illini, or Illinois Nations whose members were removed from their homelands and forced to move first to Missouri, then Kansas and finally into the northeastern part of Indian Territory, now Oklahoma; and

WHEREAS, the image portrayed by Chief Illiniwek does not accurately represent or honor the heritage of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma and is a degrading racial stereotype that reflects negatively on all American Indian people

NOW THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, the Peoria Tribe of Indians does not endorse or sanction the characterization of Chief llliniwek as mascot for the University of Illinois and

BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED, the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma request the leadership of the University of Illinois to recognize the demeaning nature of the characterization of Chief Illiniwek, and cease use of this mascots.

and:

Resolution of the Executive Committee of the Oglala Sioux Tribe Demanding return of Lakota regalia used in performances of "Chief Illiniwek", and in support of request by Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma that mascot use cease. - January 17, 2007

 

To the person against anti-chief protesters

Once again we see how Non-Indian People TELL Indigenous People what our opinions are and correct our own misunderstanding of OUR history! There can be no greater dishonor on Earth than members of an Empirical Governmental culture who nearly succeeded in the genocide of an entire race of People telling the survivors of that slaughtered culture that they are misinformed about their own history, and further telling the targeted tribes involved in this controversy that they actually support the stereotypical, racist portrayal of their culture by said murderers, When staring down the throat of Tribal Resolutions condemning said Mascot! What part of "You Have Lost Your Mind!" DON'T you understand Chief Illiniwek Supporters? Real Eye, Realize, Real Lies!

In the Spirit of Crazy Horse!

Roger L. Fontana

Southern Band of Cherokees

Registration Number 001600

Psychological effects; never invoke logic or truth!

American Indian Sports Teams Mascots, Tokens, Nicknames, Logos and Associated Symbols

- Psychological Considerations -  

       1. While anthropologists often agree that some sports may have their origins in religious rituals, perhaps imitating battle, the fierce competitiveness inherent in many sports has frequently resulted in analogies being draw between such activities and warfare.  Thus we find that characteristics like aggression, brute strength, deception, and relentlessness, which are highly valued in combat, are also desirable traits for athletes competing in the socialized, ritual warfare of the sports arena.
          By coupling American Indian people to such traits via the use of symbolically related logos, etc., negative stereotypes and historical inaccuracies are subtly encouraged and perpetuated. One example of this can be seen in the profusion of the "warrior" nickname which is very frequently related to First Nations by the use of stereotypic logos and mascots. This insidious association is particularly troublesome with regards to schools which, by virtue of their perceived authority, have the ability to strongly influence students in their development of lifelong attitudes and constructs.
 
         2.   The misconceived, self-serving concept of American Indian people being universally inclined toward particularly war-like and violent behavior historically allowed for the justification of heinous acts committed against Native Peoples in the name of "civilizing" the so-called "primitives."   By continuing to portray First Nations in this manner via association to the intrinsic aggression and violence found in many sporting activities, this same rationalization is erroneously continued to this day and carries with it serious negative consequences for contemporary Native Peoples.
             While it cannot be authoritatively said that the uses in question are a major factor in the phenomenon, according to the United States Department of Justice, American Indian people are more than twice as likely to be victims of violent crime than any other group of Americans.  Perhaps even more tragic is that American Indian children and young adults also suffer a much higher incidence of suicide than their non-Native social peers and ethnic groups.
 
       3.  Attitudes toward the use of "Indian" related mascots are inculcated at an early age when the individual is highly susceptible to influence and social pressure.  This phenomenon was successfully exploited by World War II Nazi propaganda which paid particular attention to conditioning youth to adopt anti-Jewish beliefs.
           Similarly, it is also interesting to note that several elements that were typically present at Nazi spectacle events including cheering crowds, martial music, marching, and lights (such as are used in night games) are also regular parts of  high school football.   For many Americans, the fanaticism of high school football games and all that's associated with them rightly defines those events as true spectacles where emotions are aroused and the senses heightened.  Being in such a psychological state helps to facilitate the deep emotional rooting and resultant proprietary, almost cult-like obsessive attachment these same people often exhibit toward "their" American Indian sports team token.  
 
       4. Stereotypic, cartoon-like imagery tends to dehumanize the subject. This mechanism is well-known and is often used during times of war to dehumanize an enemy. The effect allows the portrayer to trivialize the concerns of the one being portrayed and simultaneously helps protect self-esteem by relieving guilt feelings arising from hostile acts directed against the subject.
            Dehumanization, as the word implies, is a psychological process that reduces a person or group to a sub-human level.  One way in which this process is deployed is by suggesting the subject of the dehumanization is like an animal.   Because animals of various types and "Indian" related mascots are those most frequently used, it can be observed that this practice places Native Peoples on a par with wild beasts.

       5. Through stereotyping and dehumanization objectification is facilitated.  Instead of being thought of as unique individuals each of whom is capable of the full range of human behaviors and potentialities, Native Peoples are transformed into depersonalized "things" having very limited scope. At work here are the same principles found in pornography which also turns real, living people into objects of a different sort.
 
       6.  Social psychologists tell us that an attitude is composed of three parts: cognitive; affective (emotional); and behavioral.  Because of the strong and deeply rooted emotional component involved in the uses in question, beliefs held about such uses are highly resistant to change through the application of rational arguments or pure reason.

      7.  The use of such mascots and nicknames are a form of tokenism which consequently engenders rationalization of more serious acts or negative attitudes directed toward Native Peoples.

       8.  The concept of mascots and nicknames "honoring Indians" may in reality be an ego defense mechanism that helps preserve the self-esteem of the individual doing the alleged "honoring."  This process insulates the individual from acknowledging the genocidal horrors historically inflicted on First Nations peoples and allows him or her to "feel good" about themselves as they continue to stereotype and exploit American Indian people for their own self-serving purposes.  

        9.  The generic quality of the spurious misnomer, "Indians," denies Indigenous Peoples the sense of pride and place derived from an understanding and recognition of one's unique cultural heritage. By failing to illustrate the great diversity found among Native American cultures, generic mascots facilitate stereotypical categorization and perpetuate false concepts that arose with the first contact between European explorers and their Indigenous contemporaries.

      10.   "Indian" mascots "freeze" Indigenous Peoples in a romanticized historical period that ended over a century ago - and which in truth never existed.  By continuing to portray American Indians in such a manner the reality of how First Nations peoples are today - living, struggling and adapting like everyone else in the modern world - is set askew.

        11.   Because of the pervasiveness and longevity involved in the use of American Indian related mascots by public schools, such uses have become institutionalized.  Having been  institutionalized, it becomes very difficult to recognize the discriminatory and discriminatory practices for what they are.

 

American Indian Sports Team Mascots
AISTM.ORG

More Research and statements from scientists!!

APA Resolution Recommending the Immediate Retirement of
American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities by
Schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic Teams, and Organizations
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association has recognized that racism and racial
discrimination are attitudes and behavior that are learned and that threaten human development
(American Psychological Association, June 2001);
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association has resolved to denounce racism in all its
forms and to call upon all psychologists to speak out against racism, and take proactive steps to
prevent the occurrence of intolerant or racist acts (American Psychological Association, June 2001);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities
undermines the educational experiences of members of all communities-especially those who have
had little or no contact with Indigenous peoples (Connolly, 2000; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights,
2001; Society of Indian Psychologists, 1999; Webester, Loudbear, Corn, & Vigue, 1971);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities
establishes an unwelcome and often times hostile learning environment for American Indian
students that affirms negative images/stereotypes that are promoted in mainstream society (Clark &
Witko, in press; Fryberg, 2003; Fryberg & Markus, 2003; Fryberg, 2004a; Munson, 2001; Society of
Indian Psychologists, 1999; Staurowsky, 1999);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities by
school systems appears to have a negative impact on the self-esteem of American Indian children
(Chamberlin, 1999; Eagle and Condor Indigenous People’s Alliance, 2003; Fryberg, 2004b; Fryberg
& Markus, 2003; Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs, 2001; Society of Indian Psychologists,
1999; The Inter-Tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes, 2001; Vanderford, 1996);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities
undermines the ability of American Indian Nations to portray accurate and respectful images of their
culture, spirituality, and traditions (Clark & Witko, in press; Davis, 1993; Gone, 2002; Rodriquez,
1998; Witko, 2005);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities
presents stereotypical images of American Indian communities, that may be a violation of the civil
rights of American Indian people (Dolley, 2003; King, 2001; King & Springwood, 2001; Pewewardy,
1991; Springwood & King, 2000; U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2001);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities is a
form of discrimination against Indigenous Nations that can lead to negative relations between
groups (Cook-Lynn, 2001; Coombe, 1999; U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2001; Witko, 2005);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian symbols, mascots, images, and personalities is a
detrimental manner of illustrating the cultural identity of American Indian people through negative
displays and/or interpretations of spiritual and traditional practices (Adams, 1995; Banks, 1993;
Nuessel; 1994; Staurowsky, 1999; Witko, 2005);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities is
disrespectful of the spiritual beliefs and values of American Indian nations (Churchill, 1994; Gone,
2002; Sheppard, 2004; Staurowsky, 1998);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities is
an offensive and intolerable practice to American Indian Nations that must be eradicated (U.S.
Commission on Civil Rights, 2001; Society of Indian Psychologists, 1999);
WHEREAS the continued use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities has
a negative impact on other communities by allowing for the perpetuation of stereotypes and
stigmatization of another cultural group (Fryberg, 2004b; Gone, 2002; Staurowsky, 1999; U.S.
Commission on Civil Rights, 2001);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association recognizes the
potential negative impact the use of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities
have on the mental health and psychological behavior of American Indian people;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages
continued research on the psychological effects American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and
personalities have on American Indian communities and others;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages the
development of programs for the public, psychologists, and students in psychology to increase
awareness of the psychological effects that American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and
personalities have on American Indian communities and others;
AND
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association supports and
recommends the immediate retirement of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and
personalities by schools, colleges, universities, athletic teams, and organizations.
References
Adams, D.W. (1995). Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school
experience. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
American Psychological Association (June 2001). An emergency action of the Board of Directors:
Resolution against racism and in support of the goals of the 2001 United Nations World
Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance.
Washington, DC: Author. [Available online: http://www.apa.org/pi/racismresolution.html.]
Banks, D. (1993). Tribal names and mascots in sports. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 17(1),
5-8.
Chamberlin, J. (1999). Indian Psychologists Support Retiring of Offensive Team Mascots. APA
Monitor, 30 (4).
Clark, R. & Witko, T. (in press). Growing up Indian: Understanding urban Indian adolescents. In
American Psychological Association (in press). No Longer Forgotten: Addressing the Mental
Health Needs of Urban Indians. Washington, DC: Author.
Churchill, W. (1994). Indians are us? Culture and genocide in native North America. Monroe, ME:
Common Courage Press.
Connolly, M. R. (2000). What’s in a name? A historical look at Native American related nicknames
and symbols at three U.S. universities. Journal of Higher Education 71 (5), 515-547.
Cook-Lynn, E. (2001). Anti-Indianism in North America: A voice from Tatekeya’s earth. Urbana,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Coombe, R. J. (1999). Sports trademarks and somatic politics: Locating the law in critical cultural
studies. In R. Martin & T. Miller (Eds.). SportCult (pp. 262-288). Minneapolis, MN: University
of Minnesota Press.
Davis, L. (1993). Protest against the use of Native American mascots: A challenge to traditional,
American identity. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 17 (1), 9-22.
Dolley, J. (2003). The four r’s: Use of Indian mascots in educational facilities. Journal of Law and
Education, 32 (1), pp. 21-35.
Eagle and Condor Indigenous People’s Alliance (2003). Resolution by the Eagle and Condor
Indigenous Peoples’ Alliance on Eliminating Native American Indian Descriptions Naming
Mascots, Logos, and Sports Team Nicknames in Oklahoma Public Schools. [Available On-line:
http://www.aistm.org/2003ecipa.htm.]
Fryberg, S. A. (June, 2003). Free to be me? The impact of using American Indians as mascosts.
Invited address at the 16th Annual Convention of American Indian Psychologists and
Psychology Graduate Students, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
Fryberg, S. A. & Markus, H. R. (2003). On being American Indian: Current and possible selves.
Journal of Self and Identity, 2, 325-344.
Fryberg, S. A. (November, 2004a). “Dude, I’m honoring you”: The impact of using American
Indian mascots. Invited address at the North American Society for Sociology of Sports,
Tucson, Arizona.
Fryberg, S. A. (June, 2004b). American Indian social representations: Do they honor or constrain
identities? Invited address at the Mellon Humanities Center Workshop/Research Institute for
Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity network, “How do identities matter?” Stanford
University, Stanford, California.
Gone, J. P. (2002). Chief Illiniwek: Dignified or damaging? In T. Straus (Ed.), Native Chicago (2nd
ed., pp. 274-286). Chicago, IL: Albatross.
Inter-Tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes (2001). The Five Civilized Tribes Intertribal Council
Mascot Resolution. [Available On-line at: http://aistm.org/2001.civilized.tribes.htm.]
King, C. R. (2001). Uneasy Indians: Creating and contesting Native American mascots at
Marquette University. In C.R. King & C. F. Springwood (Eds.). Team spirits: Essays on the
history and significance of Native American mascots (pp. 281-303). Lincoln, NE: University of
Nebraska Press.
King, C.R., & Springwood, C.F. (2001). Beyond the cheers: Race as spectacle in college sports.
Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs (2001). Resolution of the Maryland Commission on Indian
Affairs. [Available On-line at: http://aistm.org/maryland.resolution.2001.htm.]
Munson, B. (2001). Tolerance in the news. [Available On-line at:
http://www.tolerance.org/news/article_tol.jsp?id=169.]
Nuessel, F. (1994). Objectionable sports team designations. Names: A Journal of Onomastics 42,
101-119.
Pewewardy, C. D. (1991). Native American mascots and imagery: The struggle of unlearning
Indian stereotypes. Journal of Navaho Education, 9(1), 19-23.
Rodriquez, R. (1998). Plotting the assassination of Little Red Sambo: Psychologists join war
against racist campus mascots. Black Issues in Higher Education, 15(8), 20-24.
Sheppard, H. Assembly: No redskins---Ban on name advances to Senate. Los Angeles Daily,
2004 [Available On-line at: http://www.dailynews.com/Stories/0,1413,200~20954~1923795,00.]
Society of Indian Psychologist (1999). Position statement in support of “retiring” all Indian
personalities as the official symbols and mascots of universities, colleges, or schools (and
athletic teams). [Available On-line at: http://www.aics.org/mascot/society.html.]
Springwood, C. F. & King, C. R. (2000). Race, power, and representation in contemporary
American sport. In P. Kivisto & G. Rundblad (Eds.), The color line at the dawn of the 21st
century (pp. 61-174). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Valley Press.
Staurowsky, E. (1999). American Indian imagery and the miseducation of America. Quest, 51 (4),
382 392. [Available On-line at: http://www.aistm.org/staurowsky.miseducation.htm.]
Staurowsky, E. (1998). An Act of Honor or Exploitation?: The Cleveland Indian’s Use of the Louis
Francis Socalexis Story. Sociology of Sports Journal, 15, 299 316.
U. S. Commission on Civil Rights (April 13, 2001). Statement of U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on
the use of Native American images and nicknames as sports mascots. [Available On-line:
http://www.aics.org/mascot/civilrights.html.]
Vanderford, H. (1996). What’s in a name? Heritage or hatred: The school mascot controversy.
Journal of Law and Education, 25, 381-388.
Webster, S. Loudbear, P., Corn, D., & Vigue, B. (1971, February 17). Four MU Indian students
describe Willie Wampum as racist symbol. The Marquette Tribune, p. A9.
Witko, T. (2005). In whose honor: Understanding the psychological implications of American Indian
mascots. California Psychologist, January Issue.

Furthermore:

Stereotypes/Discrimination/Identity

By David P. Rider, Ph.D.

One of Psychology's most respected authors, Erik Erikson (1968), noted that minorities throughout the world have struggled to maintain an ethnic identity, even when forced to co-exist within the context of a dominant culture. In nations where ethnic minorities were historical victims of persecution, oppression, slavery, or genocide, the dominant culture typically invokes prejudicial attitudes toward the minority group as a justification for the actions of the oppressor group (Cox, 1948; Trimble, 1988).

Laboratory research readily demonstrates that when one group of experimental subjects is directed to inflict pain or harm to members of another experimental group of subjects, the "victim" group is routinely derogated and dehumanized verbally by the "oppressor" group (Davis & Jones, 1960; Glass, 1964; Worchel & Andreoli, 1978). By developing such negative attitudes toward their own victims, "exploiters can not only avoid thinking of themselves as villains, but they can also justify further exploitation" (Franzoi, 1996, p. 394).

Negative images and attitudes toward American Indians have served precisely the same function: To protect the historical oppressors from a sense of guilt over the atrocities committed against Indians and to justify further exploitation. Indians as well as other ethnic minorities in America today "become acutely aware of the [negative] evalutions of their ethnic group by the majority white culture" (Santrock, 1997, p. 402). In a study of identity formation among minorities, Phinney (1989) reported that African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians all suffer from negative stereotypes imposed by the dominant American culture, which denigrates precisely those aspects of ethnic culture that minorities take pride in.

Research on the adverse outcome of such negative stereotypes on the functioning of minorities in America is voluminous (see Spencer & Dornbusch, 1990, for an overview). Negative appraisals of non-whites in America lead to perceptions among minorities that employment avenues are cut off and that success is out of their reach.

Nowhere are such negative appraisals of minority groups more blatant than in the mascots and Indian names of sports teams that proliferate in the American education system. While other minority groups in America must endure negative stereotypes, Indians are the only minority group that has those stereotypes advertised in government-funded public schools. Indian mascots help to promote and perpetuate the dehumanizing stereotypes that developed among European colonizers centuries ago. As such, they are harmful to both Indians and nonIndians. Indians endure the psychological damage of seeing cartoon-like caricatures of themselves embodied in the mascots, perhaps the ultimate in dehumanizing victims. It is no coincidence that Indians have the highest suicide rate, school drop-out rate, and unemployment rate of any group in the United States.

Indian mascots also harm nonIndians, for they perpetuate stereotypes that impair students from learning accurate accounts of American history and Indian/white relations throughout the post-contact era.

REFERENCES

Cox, O. C. (1948). "Caste, class, and race." New York: Doubleday.

Davis, K. E., and Jones, E. E. (1960). Changes in interpersonal perception as a means of reducing cognitive dissonance. "Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology," 61, 402-410.

Erikson, E. H. (1968). "Identity, youth, and crisis." New York: W. W. Norton.

Frannzoi, Stephen L. (1996). "Social Psychology." Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark.

Glass, D. C. (1964). Changes in liking as a means of reducing cognitive discrepancies between self-esteem and aggression. "Journal of Personality," 62, 531-549.

Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. "Journal of Early Adolescence," 9, 34-49.

Santrock, J. W. (1997). "Life-span development." Sixth edition. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark.

Spencer, M. B., and Dornbusch, S. M. (1990). Challenges in studying minority youth. In S. S. Feldman and G. R. Elliot (Eds.), "At the threshold: The developing adolescent." Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Trimble, J. E. (1988). Stereotypical images, American Indians, and and prejudice. In P. A. Katz and D. A. Taylor (Eds.), "Elimination racism: Profiles in controversy" (pp. 181-202). New York: Plenum Press.

Worchel, S., and Andreoli, V. M. (1978). Facilitation of social interaction through deindividuation of the target. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 36, 549-556.

Furthermore:

Your halftime entertainment coupled with covert US Government FBI programs make sure that alcohol and Heroin make it onto Pine Ridge to kill my relatives, Please note the words of my sister Eileen Janis in the following video.

Thanks to your "Honoring" this is MY REALITY! Pardon me if your arrogance makes you my enemy!

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Sorry that embed code does not work!

Cut and paste this link into your browser see see MY REALITY!!!

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=orPsnpsAPaI

 

In the Spirit of Leonard Peltier!

 

Roger L. Fontana

Trail of Tears

 If the Chief had been used to educate people about actual Native American history and issues I think the Chief would still exist.  Unfortunately, most Chief fans remain purposely ignorant of the history of this state. 

FYI - the Potawatami Trail of Death in 1838 was marched within a few miles of the University.  You can see monuments at Danville, Catlin, Sidney, Sadorus, Sidney, and Monticello.  Do you know who Chief Shemauger was and where he is buried?

As for this myth that the descendants of the "Illiniwek" are proud of the Chief -  that is a myth.  Although one or two Peoria tribe members in Oklahoma stated that years ago, the position of the tribe and those individuals is now very clearly against continued use of Chief Illiniwek. 

 

A vote of 2 to 3 is note

A vote of 2 to 3 is note clearly ..

Roger L. Fontana

Did you also note that the U of I was offering the Peoria Tribe (and Tribal Representatives) huge amounts of money for their endorsement? And did you further note that the vote was by the Interim Committee of the Tribal Government not the entire Tribal Counsel? And I know you have no idea of the harassment received by the two member of the Peoria Nation who voted against the resolution by their own People, nor have you noted the decision still stands and the Peoria will not engage in further discussion on the matter? Further, when asked to attend House Representative from Illinois' 105 Congressional District, Timothy V. Johnson's Congressional Fields Hearings on his controversial House Bill giving Universities adversely effected by the NCAA's band on hostile and abusive Indian Mascot the right to sue for lost revenues that the Peoria Tribe DECLINED attendance and OPENLY announced that their tribal Resolution of 2000 still stands and not further negotiations will occur! Did you note the TRUTH of the matter or did you pull one datum out of context and misuse it as a defense for your racist possession? And, do you realize that NO ONE ACCEPT the affected minority being targeted by oppression has any right, either man appointed or Divinely ordained to make any statement on said issue? Do you?

People that are against the

People that are against the Chief, need to GET A LIFE! DO SOMETHING ELSE WITH YOUR TIME! ITS NOT OFFENSIVE!

We need to get a life?

Oh, really?  Those against the Chief need a life?  It seems to me that we've all moved on--it's only the pro-Chief folks who don't have a life.  Give it up.  It's over.  Why don't you try to come up with a new mascot for the school?  The big "I" is just kind of sad. 

My students suggested the "Illinois Squirrels."  Refute that, will you? :)

Actually...

Obviously, if the anti-Chief people had really moved on, this article wouldn't even be here for you to comment on, would it?

Also, when someone tells you to get a life, and you come back and respond to their comment, that kind of proves their point.

I admit I have no room to talk, of course.

Genocide

Were 150,000,000 of your ancestors murdered by Europeans since 1492, have their way of life destroyed, their land and children taken from them and raped, and the survivors of said genocide then forced into Concentration Camps (reservations)? Getting on with our lives is exactly what we are doing! And Chief supporters wonder why we make references to them and the KKK being as one? Were you aware that Adolph Hitler Complimented the United States Government on their handling of a "Genetically Inferior Race" and that the "FINAL Solution" was modeled DIRECTLY on US Indian Policy? Here is some reality for you; read Hitlers book "Mien Kampf" and if you remain a Chief fan after this reading I made an error in my identifying you as a KKK sympathizer! If you still are a Chief fan after this reading YOU "ARE" A NAZI!

In 1995, Don Giles, then

In 1995, Don Giles, then Chief of the Peoria Tribe, said, "To say that we are anything but proud to have these portrayals would be completely wrong. We are proud. We're proud that the University of Illinois, the flagship university of the state, a seat of learning, is drawing on that background of our having been there. And what more honor could they pay us?"

Stolen Land?

And what more honor could they pay us?

Maybe give the stolen Indian lands back?

Sure, you can find Native Americans who think the "chief" somehow honors their heritage.  It's like African-Americans who vote Republican, even though the Republican Party has done virtually nothing to support their interests since Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. One can always cherrypick the evidence and come up with something like that exceptional quote.

The "chief" is the product of a time when the KKK was considered a legitimate student organization. It's a caricature, a buffoon, an infantile representation of what white people think represents Native Americans. And if you've been around long enough to remember even as recently as the early 1980s, there was none of the "respect" nonsense then. It was "chief" TP, "chief" bun warmers, "chief" jock straps...OK, maybe not that ;>)

But the whole respect thing is a myth layered on top of the original myth of the "chief" itself. Nothing more and nothing less. The "chief" only got respect from the white man when Native Americans pointed out that getting rid of the mascot was the only way to honor the memory -- and present day reality -- of Native American life in the USA.

The respect was there.. The

The respect was there.. The other items got out of control and were not sanctioned that I believe occoured at all..

Gary E. Smith invited Frank Fools Crow to the Campus of which who said

"As long as it remain honorable, It is a good thing".

 

Abe Lincoln

Forgive my militancy, I support your statement above but the Chief Fans got me started, and once an AIMster gets started it is nearly impossible to shut them off without a single gun shot to the head! lol  Please note that Lincoln's famous liberation of the slaves was a war tactic/political move to get a slave rebellion started to help the North who, at that time, were getting their butts whopped by the Confederate States of America! And, though he personally thought slavery was wrong, he also thought that Blacks were inferior to Whites (read some history). Furthermore, in his own personal opinion Abe was against emancipation because he believed in the Constitutional RIGHT of ALL STATES to be Self Governing. Lincoln's actions in the Civil War are clear Constitutional violations and Turned a Republic of Autonomous States into a Federation which is treason under the Constitution of the "United States of America". Thew US Constitution went out the window after the North won! And, I absolutely guarantee you that if the Founding Father's were still alive at that time in history THEY would have assassinated him as a domestic enemy of the Republic!!!!! Please note too that Abe was the first elected representative of a brand new political party; The Democratic Republican Party, who later split into two ideological wings of the same broken bird that now control your Country! Please note as well that America is not, nor has ever been a Democracy! It was a Republic of Autonomous States based one some democratic principles, but even our "Democratically elected representatives" are not democratically elected! Ever hear of the  Electoral College? The guys and gals who put King Bush the second into office as our President TWICE, even though he lost the popular democratic vote twice! AMERICA IS A LIE, an ILLUSION,a Slight of hand trick! Always has been and always will be!

In Loving Service to the Ground on Which we Stand; Turtle Island, and to Her children collectively know as American Indians!  Mother Earth owns us! We do not own Her!

 

Roger L. Fontana

anti chief rally

why cant the protestors and the university come together with some kind of a resolution, a middle ground where the university would give up a portion of their representation in place of what the protestors think they should be saying first.

THe university is against the

THe university is against the Student for Chief Illiniwek.. well the position of it...

But yes.. the compriomise I believe has to happened using all that is good of this tradition.

 

?????????????

Racism has good points? Their was a tradition long ago known as Slavery, and believe me it had some mighty good pionts for its supporters! Should we have come to a consences resolution on that racist issue as well? OKAY, we keep slavery, but we pay the slaves two dollars an hour for their 18 to 20 hour a day labor and give them Sundays off! How is that for a compromise? Being of the Domenant Culture and Never Having had to live the horor of being born and raised on a Reservation/ Concentration Camp like Pine Ridge you have absolutley no idea of what you are asking. But believe, as one who has activley helped the Oglala Lakota Nation for the past 16 years, and who has finally done enough good for the People of that Nation to earn the right of adoption and a name that I have not yet been gifted (hopefully this summer!), you are asking to keep the slaves and give them a cookie! At least come to the understanding that you have no idea of what it is like to be a reservation raised Indian, and that a city raised Indian from an Upper Middle Class family In Chicago with no ties to their heritage or Reservation has no idea of what it is like either! There will always be People who sell their soul to the Devil for material weath and easy living! We call such Indians Apples, Red on the Outside and White on the Inside! And so your "Unofficial" Cherokee Chief Illiniwek, who if he went to The Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma or the Eastern Band home in South Carolina would get his Apple Ass deaten to death!!!

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